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By | On April 22, 2018 (7 months ago)



society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

(i) Society is a largest human group.

(ii) It satisfies the needs of its members.

(iii)One of the characteristic of society is having sense of belonging and cooperation. It is more or less permanent association

(iv) It is abstract (Because social relationships can be felt and imagined and cannot be seen).

(v) Everyone in society is dependent upon every other member.

(vi) It should be organized i.e. will be having division of labor.

(vii) “There is consciousness of kind.” Among the members of society.

(viii) It is always changing.
It has its own means to survive.

(ix) It is a self-sufficient social system.

(x)It lasts for a longer period of time than groups and communities.

(xi) One of the characteristic of society has its own culture.

Communalism is a political and economic arrangement with emphasis on collective,whereby the community agreed that they should co-operate and come together to harness their resources together for the good of everybody.

*3a)* – By Birth : A person is a citizen by birth if either his parents, mother or father is a citizen of a country

– By naturalization : Somebody can become a citizen of a country where he lives through naturalization. This is possible if he can satisfy the constitutional requirements for naturalization

– Marriage or Registration : If a woman is married to a person of another nationality, she can acquire the citizenship of the husband’s country through registration
*3b)* – Statutory age: An alien can become a citizen of another country if he has attained the required age as stipulated by the law of the country

– Good character : He/She must possess good character

*5(a)* A constituency is a district or a geographical area created by an Electoral Commission for the election of one or more persons into the legislature.

(b)(i)community support;
(ii)better knowledge of candidates;
(iii)active participation;
(iv)easy to operate;
(v)less expensive;
(vi)political stability;
(vii)easy accountability to members of the constituency;
(viii)emergence of the most popular candidate.

Choose any 5 above.

6)- Appointment : The Emir appointment of officials e. g. Madawaki/Waziri/Galadima and Hakim to assist him in administering the emirate

– Social services : Provides social services for the people

– Communal work: The Emir organized his people for communal work e. g. roads and emir’s palace

– Defense: Organizes the people for defense of the emirate against external attacks

– Supreme leader: The emir was the Supreme leader of his subjects


Protonationalism is generally referred to as traditional nationalists who were opposed to giving up their territories because they were denied respectable positions in their land or communities by reason of their race


– Economic exploitation : There was economic exploitation of Nigerians by foreign firms

– Administrative post: Nigerians were not allowed to hold any administrative posts and the highest they could attain was that of Chief Clerk

– Lake of adequate educational facilities : The missionaries who were out to provide education did not achieve much due to financial problens

– Racial segregation : Discrimination against the natives was mostly witnessed in the 20th century in Nigeria.

*Answer any five(5)*

1. the President was the Chief Executive of the country who performed the day-today running of the country;

2. he inaugurated the National assembly at the beginning of each session;

3. he assented to bills duly passed by the National assembly into laws;
4. he appointed key officials of government;

5. he represented the country at international conferences like the UNO, AU, Commonwealth, ECOWAS, etc.;

6. he performed ceremonial functions;

7. he exercised prerogative of mercy i.e. he could pardon convicted persons or those found guilty of treason;

8. he signed treaties with other countries on behalf of the country;

9. he formulated policies for good governance;

10. he prepared and presented the annual


-Language barrier There are three languages that are used for communication within the ECOWAS bloc, that is English, French and Portuguese.

– Human Rights Abuses Another problem of the ECOWAS group is the penchant of the member states to abuse the human rights of their citizens. The human rights records of some member states is nothing to write home about.

– Financial problems The aims and objectives of the ECOWAS can only be achieved when the financial base of the community is solid. However, some member states are not able to honour their financial obligations to the community.

– Strong External Influence: Many of the member states of ECOWAS were former colonies of some former colonial powers. Countries such as Britain, France and Portugal ever had a colony
or two that now belong to the ECOWAS group.

– Widespread Poverty: Many of the member states of ECOWAS are among the poorest of the poor nations in the world. Many of their citizens earn less that a dollar a day.

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