1a.Justice is what we as a society regard as “right” based on our moral concepts of ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness, in other words, justice is the proper application of law.

(No1b) the figure 1. Is called Lady justice and labeled part is explained Bellow
i. Scales:
Lady Justice is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from one hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case’s support and opposition.
ii. Blindfold: Lady Justice has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status.
iii. Sword:
The sword represented authority in ancient times, and conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final.



1. Makes Nigerian Highways Safe For Road Users
One of the major functions of the federal road safety commission is to make sure that, Nigerian highways are safe for motorists and other road users.

2. Recommends Works And Devices Designed To Eliminate Accidents
Another functions of the federal road safety commission borders on recommending works, as well as, some devices that would be designed for the purpose of helping in eliminating accidents or minimizing accidents on the Nigerian highways

3. Educates Road Users And Members Of The Public On Importance Of Discipline
There is need as to why motorists should be discipline while on the highway. This is very important since it will help in reducing accident occurrences on the Nigerian highways.

Against this backdrop, it therefore, remained the statutory function of the federal road safety commission to enlighten motorists, as well as, educate road users on the importance of being discipline, when once they are on the road with a view to reduce the rate of accidents on the Nigerian highways.

4. The Commission Prevents and Minimizes Accidents on Nigerian Highways
This is very important, and it is a major function of the federal road safety commission. It is incumbent on the part of the federal road safety commission to make sure that, reliable measures are being put in place to, if not completely prevent road accidents, but can minimize such problems on the Nigerian highways.

5. The Commission Clears Obstructions On Highways
It is a known fact that most of the roads in the towns and cities have been obstructed by spoiled and abandoned vehicles, and some of these vehicles do breakdown while on the highway.

As a result, these breakdown vehicles, for the most part, do obstruct highways, and free flow of traffic on the Nigerian roads, hence, do result in causing accidents.


(i)They lie; They have to tell lies to mislead people about where they were when they were really out buying or using drugs or alcohol. They have to lie about where the hundreds or thousands of dollars went. The more they feel they need drugs, the more likely they are to feel the need to lie.

(ii)They manipulate; They try to encourage good decisions but the addicted person is on a destructive track. The allure of the drugs is so powerful, she feels she needs the drugs to function, to be able to get through another day, to not get desperately sick from withdrawal. So she manipulates those who love her the most

(iii)They are very likely to be engaged in criminal acts; Eventually, the money runs out. They have pawned or sold everything of value. They owe friends and family money. There are no more assets but the drugs or alcohol have to be obtained.
At this point, many people will begin committing crimes. Selling or manufacturing drugs are common ones.

(iv)An addict will shift the blame; this person may have lived their prior life as a highly responsible individual, drug addiction steals that quality away. Whatever happens is never his fault. If he gets fired from a job, it’s the boss’s fault, the addict was unfairly targeted. If he gets in a car accident, it was totally someone else’s fault. If he fails at some activity, those close to him will be blamed.

(v)5. An addict is very likely to become abusive;
It’s tragic that an addict’s blame can even take a violent and abusive form. With the delusional thinking common to most addicts, he can perceive those around him as being threatening, dangerous or malicious. As he shifts the blame, he may physically, mentally or emotionally attack those he blames

HIV is a virus spread through certain body fluids that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, often called T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease.
AIDS is the most severe phase of HIV infection. People with AIDS have such badly damaged immune systems that they get an increasing number of severe illnesses, called opportunistic infections.

I) Fever.
Ii) Chills.
Iv) Night sweats.
V) Muscle aches.
Vi) Sore throat.
Vii) Fatigue.
Viii) Swollen lymph nodes
Ix) Mouth ulcers


The rule of law has 3 main features:
1.The ‘absolute supremacy or predominance of regular law as opposed to the influence of arbitrary power’. This aspect prevents anyone in the government from exercising arbitrary power, and it also prevents anyone from being punished for anything other than a breach of the law
2.Equality before the law
3.The “rule of law”, lastly, may be used as a formula for expressing the fact that with us the law of the constitution [is] not the source but the consequence of the rights of individuals as defined and enforced by the courts; that, in short, the principles of private law have with us been by the action of the courts and Parliament so extended as to determine the position of the Crown and of its servants……..

Diplomatic immunity
Diplomats and Ambassadors have immunity against the rule of law in the country they are serving. They are above the legislation of that country. For example, an envoy from the United Kingdom cannot be charged or tried in Nigeria. They have to be sent back to their country.
(ii) State of emergency and war
In cases of conflict or situations which require the government to declare a state of emergency, the government enforces discretionary powers. And when the government exercises these powers, it denies people of their constitutional rights. People are restricted from carrying out their normal day to day activities and forced against their wish.
(iii)Illiteracy, poverty and ignorance
The level of poverty and illiteracy in Nigeria is also a limitation to the rule of law. A lot of people live in ignorance of their constitutional rights which makes it easy for people to infringe their rights.
(Iv) Delegation legislation
Top government officials, especially in the executive branch, are granted some discretionary powers. This allows them to perform their duties efficiently. However, due to the fact that human beings are selfish and love power, this opens up the opportunity for them to use this privilege against citizens. It is most time referred to as the abuse of power. A government official can make lawful sanctions that abuse the rights of an individual or society when they are administered.


(No8a) Political apathy is best described when a citizen is indifferent in their attitude to political activities, such as electing politicians, having opinions, and their civic responsibility. A more simplified term for political apathy would be that someone ‘cannot be bothered’ to participate in their country’s political system.

(No8b) 1. Political apathy will lead to bad government
2. It will lead to emergence of thugs and greedy politician emerging as leaders
3. It will lead to lack of communication between the government and the citizens
4. It will lead to denial of political information and education
5. Political apathy will cause the government to behave anyhow since people are not interested in their activities.



9a Civil society can be understood as the “third sector” of society, distinct from government and business, and including the family and the private sphere.


1. Political Instability
One big issue affecting the Civil society in Nigeria is political instability in addition to the frequent change of government. This is also accompanied by the inconsistent policies. All these affect the development and growth of the civil society.

2. Lack Of Proper Awareness By Nigerian Citizens.
Most Nigerian are ignorant of the presence of these societies and some do not know the value of this organization. This has therefore hindered the national spread of this society goals and objectives, so as to receive support from every Nigeria citizen.

3. Political Illiteracy Of Nigerians
The political illiteracy of Nigerians has affected the way Nigerians accepts this civil society. Nigerians, especially those in the rural setting have low or no education in the political system of Nigeria. Thus, they have been unable to use thus civil society as a proper vehicle to pressure the government.

4. Lack Of Unity
There has been a long-standing problem of division among civil societies. In communicating with the government about their interests, there have always been disagreements among Nigerian Civil society practitioner. These disagreements can be either a clash of interest between two civil society or within a single society. Due to this inability to create a common ground, they thereby create a loophole for the government to play them.

5. Inadequate Funding
Most civil societies suffer lack of funding, so as they can pursue their interests. Research has shown that due donor has ignored the Civil society due to the deficiency in the proper organization. Also, this has made these societies to shift their focus from pressuring the government to do what is right, to seeking of the fund from local and foreign donors. Some have even become a slave to the government and thus can no longer rise up against the government when the right things are not done.

6. Lack Of Internal Democracy And Other Skills
This is a notable problem because members of this civil societies are unable to learn democratic norms and values. As a result, they are unable to teach the Nigerian citizens. They also lack important skills like advocacy and organization. These skills are required to be able to be able to have an effective conversion with the government.

7. Corruption And Personal Enrichment
There have been a lot of corruption accusations in many civil societies. They range from embezzlement and conversion of funds to personal accounts, to lack of transparency by this civil societies. Thus, has caused moral weakness in this societies to allow fruitful engagement with the government.

8. Involvement In Partisan Politics
Some of the members of these civil societies are involved in partisan politics. That are the same members that are checking the government and fighting the government when there is a wrong policy in place. These members are in political post in the country. Thus, it is hard to criticize the government properly and effectively when they err in their duties and responsibilities.

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